Terms and Definitions 

Action Levels – (1) Regulatory levels recommended by EPA for enforcement by FDA and USDA when pesticide residues occur in food or feed commodities for reasons other than the direct application of the pesticide. As opposed to “tolerances” which are established for residues occurring as a direct result of proper usage, action levels are set for inadvertent residues resulting from previous legal use or accidental contamination. (2) In the Superfund program, the existence of a contaminant concentration in the environment high enough to warrant action or trigger a response under SARA and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan.

Bioremediation – Use of living organisms to clean up oil spills or remove other pollutants from soil, water, or wastewater; use of organisms such as non-harmful insects to remove agricultural pests or counteract diseases of trees, plants, and garden soil.

Instar - A stage of an insect or other arthropod between one molt and the next prior to metamorphosis.

Invasive - is a non-native species whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic harm, environmental harm, or harm to human health.

Pheromone – Chemicals emitted by an organism to influence the behavior of other organisms of the same species.

Planthopper -There are over 12,500 described species of plant hoppers worldwide. The name comes from their remarkable resemblance to leaves and other plants of their environment and from the fact that they often "hop" for quick transportation in a similar way to that of grasshoppers. However, planthoppers generally walk very slowly so as not to attract attention. Distributed worldwide, all members of this group are plant-feeders.

Predation - is the ecological process by which energy is transferred from living animal to living animal based on the behavior of a predator that captures and kills a prey before eating it.

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